Curl Put File Contents

As wrap up, CURL can download HTML pages, fill HTML forms and submit them, download files from a FTP/HTTP server and upload files to the same and read/write cookies. With modern browser support, you can upload many files at one time if the multiple attribute is given. At the time of this writing, they can be found here. cURL can do just about anything that a normal web browser can do including send a file via a post request. To upload a stream with curl, you need CURLOPT_PUT and CURLOPT_INFILE. 3 conseguirmos também definir outros parametros da requisição quando estas são necessárias existe sempre tendência a usar curl em vez do parametro context do file. But a curl doesn't send last contents chunk of 232 byte. In this article, you learn how to use WebHDFS REST APIs and Data Lake Storage Gen1 REST APIs to perform filesystem operations on Azure Data Lake Storage Gen1. curl is at curl. file, and not -s is the argument, i. The same code is working if I don’t use the fancybox. This is all about accessing incoming PUT data from PHP and the authors attempts to find out more resources to go about this activity and trying to find out people who could pitch in more information to add to the process. I'm using the utility I wrote to copy files between servers. You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use for the file upload part, by using 'type=', in a manner similar to: curl-F "web=@index. An example curl request to update ‘README. 14 regarding javascript. This PHP cURL guide makes it easier for you to convert your command line cURL commands into native PHP cURL calls, but pairing up the command line options, with PHP's option constants. Why I wanted to do this in the first place is beyond the scope of this post, since its quite a long story. 1 200 OK Content-Length: 6 Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8 Access-Control-Allow-Origin: * ETag: [ETAG_VALUE] Cache-Control: no-cache 10 // Current value of the data at the specified location Include the returned ETag in your next PUT or DELETE request to update data that specifically matches that ETag value. json files and will add contents to this files which we need. The name cURL originally meant "see URL. txt ftp://ftp. However, I could not make it working so far. Live Preview Download File. You can upload any file type from pictures and videos to software and documents. Within the Windows Explorer window, open the drive that contains your files. If uploading the support data with the SR is not an option, or for support data files over 2 GB in size, use the FTPS file upload service from Oracle support at transport. To upload a local file named mylocalfile. Free, fast and reliable file hosting service. How will i be going about that? The app runs fines and everything but can't upload multiple files right now. Some of them are CLI-based, and some of them are GUI-based. Once I have no issues with files of Content-Type text/html/json all transfers of image files have been cut. curl tutorial with examples of usage 12 March 2011. The first argument is the attribute of the model that is going to be used for the file attachment (In this case it is:picture, as we know from the database migration). Curl is a cross-platform add-in for Cake that allows to transfer files to a remote URL using curl. Follow the prompts to upload your files. As a wrapper to the REST API, it offers a way to simplify automation scripts making them more readable and easier to maintain, features such as parallel uploads and downloads, checksum optimization and wildcards/regular expressions make your scripts more efficient and. crt is the signed certificate from a CA and. First, create a file named something like "multipart. What you can put in these files is determined by the AllowOverride directive. , from Finder) into iTerm2 while holding the option key, iTerm2 will offer to upload the file via scp to the remote host into the directory you were in on the line you dropped the file on. POSTing a file's contents with CURL. md' would be: curl -X PUT -u username:password -F content=@README. Below is an example of being prompted for each file & why you may want to avoid this (you have to type either y or n for each file): — very bad if you have to move hundreds to thousands of files. jks keystore to configure it with Weblogic Server. When file is successfully uploaded, then you can delete a temporary file using File. After testing all kinds of media players for hours, I realized the easiest way to watch any video with a separate SRT file is to use VLC Media Player. At the time of this writing, they can be found here. Download missing DLL files for free to fix DLL errors. zip to a destination folder. The basic idea behind the cURL functions is that you initialize a cURL session using the curl_init(), then you can set all your options for the transfer via the curl_setopt(), then you can execute the session with the curl_exec() and then you finish off your session using the curl_close(). In this post we will see how to upload a file to Document library to a specific folder path using rest api in SharePoint online and SharePoint 2013. PUT a file. See linuxsetup42. It is also used in cars, television sets, routers, printers, audio equipment, mobile phones, tablets, settop boxes, media players and is the internet transfer backbone for thousands of software applications affecting billions of humans daily. How to automatically upload/download files to/from Office 365 SharePoint Online This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. Followed by a pointer to a string, it tells libcurl to use the given string as the filename in the file upload part instead of the actual file name. But on ESXi you can only upload files over PUT. Uploading to S3 in Bash. Today we learn how to migrate content from a comma-separated value (CSV) file into Drupal, using the latest version of the Migrate Source CSV module and the CSV PHP library by the PHP League. You access data through a BasicConnection or a FileConnection. curl -K myconfig. In above example of local. com:password --upload-file test. When you are writing a script using cURL sometimes you will want to view the response headers only without seeing the data or the request. With this tool you can download, upload and manage files, check your email address, or even update your status on some social media websites, and even check the weather outside. This goes for both @ and < constructs. In general,. After some digging in cURL I found the -F & --form flag to set the file and its content type. Note that curl's --data option, originally used by this answer, is inappropriate for file uploads since it strips out newline characters and thus may modify the file. Security-related improvements were also made to the HTTP authentication code. In the context of web applications, we call "upload" the process in which a user sends data/files from a local computer to a remote computer. The library supports the transport via POST, GET, FTP upload and much more. Those are the basics of cURL. curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d "{'json':{'data. I am able to upload/download successfully using Curl for windows version 7. Curl is command line utility for transferring data from or to a server designed to work without user interaction. 1) Using a single curl command to do both login and download. Q: I am looking at Qoppa’s Web PDF Markup module to use in my web application. The -J / --remote-header-name enables this. Adding a postfix when downloading files using CURL if a file by that name already exists 0 cURL “[skips] unknown form field” when passing semicolon-delimited string as form data. The problem was that I tried to use POST request. Attached is a runnable shell script showing how curl can be use to download and upload files from/to a JSCAPE MFT Server using HTTP protocol. Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive informa‐ tion, to the given output file. First, if you don't already have cURL, you must install it. i am newbie in the Batch file creation and hoping you guys can help and guide me on the following:-i wanted to created a batch file to :-1st – zip a folder containing a txt files 2nd – the batch file shall ignore the current date folder 3rd – the batch shall be executed on 1200am daily. I have the file name which should transfer. net/uwiki/SomeFile. You are performing a PUT, which should be a POST (even when you switch Resumable Upload). Posting data from a file named 'foobar' would thus be done with --data @foobar. 0 but that. This resource accepts PUT multipart form data, containing the file in a form-field named 'content'. Like Like. The prerequisites for the next step is to have the latest version of Windows Azure SDK deployed on your machine where you will be create this application. Create a Reference. API tools faq deals. CURL is a great tool for making requests to servers; especially, I feel it is great to use for testing APIs. If you have spaces in the query values, you should encode them i. Method 2 – Upload file(s) using Multi-Part / Form Data mode (Mixed content, multiple files) Second method for file upload is Multi-Part Upload. That means by default the @/some/filename. Colleen Moore Argentinean Magazine AD. It is very easy to upload files to FTP using cURL. When you are writing a script using cURL sometimes you will want to view the response headers only without seeing the data or the request. Upload with scp. Mount file shares concurrently in the cloud or on-premises on Windows, Linux and macOS. I have not yet amended this script to utilize authentication mechanisms. I am trying to upload a whole folder, including it's sub-folders and files to a folder on my server from a Windows batch (. Syntax : $ java utils. You can now take this file and import it on any other Windows machine. Delete existing file in repository; Repository files API. exe, license file (. Typically, curl will automatically extract the public key from the private key file, but in cases where curl does not have the proper library support, a matching public key file must be specified using the --pubkey option. Hello Dear All, I am trying to post an attachment to a document or upload an excel file by using restful webservices via cURL. => Properties 3. The -F flag sets curl to emulate a filled-in form. cURL is a great library for file transmissions via different types of protocols. CURLOPT_PUT: TRUE to HTTP PUT a file. Box Mobile. You can attach files to CouchDB just like email. If I try to upload via curl using scp it fails to send the file. You could also just use the redirect (< x. 2 I am able to connect to the remote server with my username and password but the output is onl | The UNIX and Linux Forums. Downloading Files. Their API has some info, including Url's and expected output. So far, we already. If you use OpenAPI 2 (fka Swagger), visit OpenAPI 2 pages. Curl has the ability to read and write cookie files that use the same file format that Netscape and Mozilla once used. bash; aws; There are already a couple of ways to do this using a 3rd party library, but I didn't really feel like including and sourcing several hundred lines of code just to run a CURL command. 0 supports file upload requests with Content-Type: multipart/form-data, but does not care about the HTTP method. Hi,I am trying to upload a file from Linux/Unix to ShareFile location. To upload a stream with curl, you need CURLOPT_PUT and CURLOPT_INFILE. Extract contents of jar file to curl using scp. The FileSystem scheme of WebHDFS is "webhdfs://". curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user. Setting up the PowerShell cmdlets for the Azure Files preview. After some digging in cURL I found the -F & --form flag to set the file and its content type. md' would be: curl -X PUT -u username:password -F content=@README. THE unique Spring Security education if you're working with Java today. It's in the upper-left side of the window. I have not yet amended this script to utilize authentication mechanisms. Importing is really easy. Instead, you will find an object with a variety of properties and methods that allow you to analyze text files. curl-loader provided client load against Apache web-server fetching a url with a gigabyte file, thus, creating a permanent heavy-load traffic, containing thousands of tcp-streams at the gateway in the middle. By using noderef i can upload files. curl-loader is capable of simulating application behavior of hundreds of thousands of HTTP/HTTPS and FTP/FTPS clients, each with its own source IP-address. Adding your content to Box. Find the example file and demo below. $ curl --data "param1=value1¶m2=value2" http: //locahost:8080/weather if you want to send a data from file to web service, you can also use the following command: $ curl -X POST -d @filename http: //locahost:8080/weather Similarly, if you want to upload a file you can do so by executing the following command:. You can access this folder to back up and view files. Went to the console - Files - click “Uploads” directory - I see new file with name “1. You'll see Invoke-WebRequest [-Uri] , with the brackets [] indicating -Uri can be left out (and therefore implicitly invoked). Create an SSH connection to the Unix server where the file is located. Here's what my list of files looks like: I have tried to do in bash script: iiumlabs. Box Mobile. Create, read, update and delete repository files using this API. The -R option will make the change recursively through the directory structure. com API It looks like you can use POST in PHP without cURL. While the second part of the post will cover implementation of Two Factor Authentication for the same. This code contains the server with everything you need to create your own instance. Once I have no issues with files of Content-Type text/html/json all transfers of image files have been cut. hello, I'm trying to upload a file to this ftp server and others ftp://ftp. The powerful curl command line tool can be used to download files from just about any remote server. There are many different clients you can use, but we recommend FileZilla. Please edit it to add more examples. Obviously I'm using real values in my cURL. Stay Organized in Box. If there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the local file name. Summary If you have built a simple web page (see HTML basics for an example), you will probably want to put it online, on a web server. what you want to name the content of the downloaded URL? In fact, you might see that you've created a file named -s …which is not the end of the world, but not something you want to happen unwittingly. Schey ( Norton, 1973) WW Item Preview. To upload to an FTP server, you specify the entire target file path and name in the URL, and you specify the local file name to upload with -T, --upload-file. Curl is command line utility for transferring data from or to a server designed to work without user interaction. I have replaced it with --upload-file instead. (born August 23, 1933) is a University Professor Emeritus, Pitzer–Schlumberger Professor of Natural Sciences Emeritus, and Professor of Chemistry Emeritus at Rice University. All you have to do is double-click on the file and it will open up the Certificate Import Wizard. Excel VBA - CURL - PUT - JSON - WinHttpRequest I am trying to perform actions on a tool that supports API. curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d "{'json':{'data. I am trying to upload a whole folder, including it's sub-folders and files to a folder on my server from a Windows batch (. cURL is cross-platform utility means you can use on Windows, MAC, and UNIX. So I needed a way to send a POST request, being able to build the request body on the fly (note, you’ll need to know the total size to be able to send the Content-Length header). 14 regarding javascript. Quick Tips. zip to a destination folder. For added security, set an expiration on the file and it is deleted within a certain amount of time, even if it was never downloaded. Delete existing file in repository; Repository files API. For more information, see Uploading Objects in the Amazon Simple Storage Service Developer Guide. HTTP offers several "uploads" HTTP (and its bigger brother HTTPS) provides several different ways to upload data to a server and curl offers easy command-line options to do it the three most common ways. Using curl to upload POST data with files. Upload Files to an FTP server with or without Authentication. To just get the content part from a file, prefix the file name with the symbol <. Linux Page Cache Hit Ratio, 22 Nov 2014 » Here's an. Nothing documented even supporting --upload-file, instead I got the -T transfer flag, which did not work. The default value is "", which means no HTTP header Location will be sent. csv from local directory to airlinedata directory, use the following curl command (the Content-Type parameter is required):. html Using -o to curl command and giving a specific file name will save output to that file, Above instance san. Here's a simple example, using PHP's curl extension, of using the bit. htaccess file is better set in a Directory block, as it will have the same effect with better performance. Select Virtual Directory 2. key files, which has to be converted to a. More info available here: Central Wireless. Even though you (acting as Stan) created these files and they haven't actually been transported anywhere, you can simulate being someone other than the creater and sender, Stan. Method 5 – Sending Email. A WebHDFS FileSystem URI has the following format. only a file name, it fails. Read more about it here. To upload files and folders recursively use-r switch with put command. You could upload the file with metadata by RestAPI. html Using -o to curl command and giving a specific file name will save output to that file, Above instance san. For example, specify ***. This means that if you wanted to add another public key for your account on this server, you would copy the contents of the second id_rsa. This comment has been minimized. Q: I am looking at Qoppa’s Web PDF Markup module to use in my web application. CVE-120608. We'll show you how to view a CURL file you found on your computer or received as an email attachment, and what it's for. All of Stripe’s officially supported Client libraries should have support for sending multipart/form-data. h is paired with grades. Delete() method. Use this task in a build or release pipeline to use cURL to upload files with supported protocols such as FTP, FTPS, SFTP, HTTP, and more. Also let. {even3}] in case your API can accept them that way. ; In Control Panel, click Administrative Tools, and then click Component Services to open Component Services in the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). Upload files into SFTP/FTP via CURL ? Welcome to All Linux Geeks, Programmers. text' but using curl (on the same client machine) still gives the "You don't have permission to access" xml file. 3 or later, so that should not be an issue. Here's what my list of files looks like: I have tried to do in bash script: iiumlabs. With Curl, you can download or upload data or files using one of the supported protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, and FTP. Download Grand. You can upload files by dragging and dropping or by pointing and clicking. # cURL upload files # Use cURL's supported protocols to upload files - task: cURLUploader@2 inputs: files: #authType: 'ServiceEndpoint' # Optional. That content-type is the default for multipart formposts but you can, of course, still modify that for your own commands and if you do, curl is clever enough to still append the boundary magic to the replaced header. Following is the syntax to attach files to the document −. It is a convenient way to share cookies between scripts or invokes. csv file exactly like the one you downloaded in the previous step. ssh/known_hosts file. curl은 TLS 연결시 인증서의 유효성(신뢰된 인증기관에서 발급 여부, 인증서내 DN과 host이름 일치 여부, 유효 기간내에 있는지등)을 검증하지만 개발용 서버라 도메인이. Script Day: Upload Files to Amazon S3 Using Bash Monday, May 26th, 2014 Here is a very simple Bash script that uploads a file to Amazon’s S3. Hi , I want to fetch a image using curl api and want to show directly in the fancy box, but it is showing in binary format always. We can still use the same parameters in our callAPI() function as always. The file_get_contents() reads a file into a string. CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER: TRUE to return the transfer as a string of the return value of curl_exec() instead of outputting it directly. In this tutorial, we will first find out what cUrl, libcurl and PHP/CURL are, because we want to make everyone know the differences in these three concepts. CRUD for repository files. See also: SQLizer API Reference. curl also supports HTTPS certificates, HTTP POST, HTTP PUT, FTP uploading HTTP. curl은 TLS 연결시 인증서의 유효성(신뢰된 인증기관에서 발급 여부, 인증서내 DN과 host이름 일치 여부, 유효 기간내에 있는지등)을 검증하지만 개발용 서버라 도메인이. Curl supports HTTPS certificates, HTTP POST, HTTP PUT, FTP uploading, kerberos, HTTP form based upload, proxies, cookies, user+password authentication, file transfer resume, http proxy tunneling and a busload of other useful tricks. The PHP manual lacks good documentation on how to use cURL to connect to an FTP server with Implicit SSL/TLS, so here’s an example from a recent project. If you have a lot of unrelated OpenAPI files in a folder, you can import those through the folder importer. GD: Fixed bug #77269 (efree() on uninitialized Heap data in imagescale leads to. This is how to upload two or more files at once with cURLFile. csv from local directory to airlinedata directory, use the following curl command (the Content-Type parameter is required):. This tutorial will explain how to download files using cURL, how to upload files using cURL, how to resume interrupted downloads or to use a proxy when downloading files among other tips. The above command will return the following result. To instead send the contents of a file, prefix the file name with the symbol "<". However, because FTP sends authentication information and file contents over the wire unencrypted, it's not a secure way to communicate. Question: I typically use wget to download files. If your API endpoint can only accept one at a single time, then you can write a bash script that traverses your json array and throws a curl command for each one of them. Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive informa‐ tion, to the given output file. The list of options that can be passed is dizzying. Skip to main content w3bees. In contrast to other tools, curl-loader is using real C-written client protocol stacks, namely, HTTP and FTP stacks of libcurl and TLS / SSL of openssl , and simulates user behavior with support for login and authentication flavors. Wednesday September 30, 2015 by ruslany. Div, Grad, Curl And All That An Informal Text On Vector Calculus 3rd Ed H. 3 conseguirmos também definir outros parametros da requisição quando estas são necessárias existe sempre tendência a usar curl em vez do parametro context do file. I'm trying to PUT an image file with cURL to a Bluemix. Create, read, update and delete repository files using this API. HTTP PUT is the sort of upload that was designed to send a complete resource that is meant to be put as-is on the remote site or even replace an existing resource there. Just drag and drop a file to the upload box, or you can click the box and select a file to upload. 4 introduced a series of API commands for managing block page files on V and X Series appliances when connecting to the appliance from a remote computer using cURL. the Spark service exposes an API to allow you to download or upload files. In the pop-up window, select the file for upload, include any notes, and click Attach File. In above example of local. PUT call to upload file to the storage location; POST call to create the first version of the uploaded file. ftp> cd uploads ftp> put c:\files\file1. The cURL package contains an utility and a library used for transferring files with URL syntax to any of the following protocols: FTP, FTPS, HTTP, HTTPS, SCP, SFTP, TFTP, TELNET, DICT, LDAP, LDAPS and FILE. It will use memory mapping techniques if supported by your OS to enhance performance. Remember to see my other article: How to download a File from a WebDAV Server in VB. Adding a postfix when downloading files using CURL if a file by that name already exists 0 cURL "[skips] unknown form field" when passing semicolon-delimited string as form data. Generally speaking, the PUT method is used to update a given resource (I will presume that you already know this). csv from local directory to airlinedata directory, use the following curl command (the Content-Type parameter is required):. But, how do you download file using curl command line under a Linux / Mac OS X / BSD or Unix-like operating systems? GNU wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from the Web. Hi I'm trying to download an xml file from a https server using curl on a Linux machine with Ubuntu 10. curl_file_create — Create a CURLFile object. If you know your file remote location you can download it with a single command order. PHP's CURL library, which often comes with default shared hosting configurations, allows web developers to complete this task. net domain name. Follow the prompts to upload your files. How to use the curl command for uploading and downloading files without user interaction By Jack Wallen in Networking on May 24, 2018, 8:47 AM PST. Most of them have curl library installed. If the file length is known, the full width of the bar is the known length. While attaching file content to request body, file have been fully cached in RAM. curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d "{'json':{'data. MSDN Community Support Please remember to "Mark as Answer" the responses that resolved your issue. Batch file method: Download UploadLicense. The intent of the tool is to transfer data, without user interaction, to or from a server, using one of the many supported protocols. When I executed the command it takes some seconds to finish and I get the following output:. sh, you need Curl. Transfer files securely with SFTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was once the most widely used protocol for transferring files between computers. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Just be careful so that the content does not contain any = or @ symbols, as that will then make the syntax match one of the other cases below! "=content": This will make curl URL encode the content and pass that on. Like Like. cURL stands for command Line URL and is a simple, yet powerful, command line utility that gives the ability to download content using a lightweight executable that provides cross-platform support. Definition and Usage. Step 3: Working with Directories Listing directories with security settings: Changing Directories: Step 4: Downloading files with FTP. - Mark Amery May 30 '15 at 1:21. If you want to be real fancy you can do: cat file. In education, for example, one could create a source file of test questions, and include it in both a student and a teacher version of the text. Mount file shares concurrently in the cloud or on-premises on Windows, Linux and macOS. All of Stripe’s officially supported Client libraries should have support for sending multipart/form-data. Using Http PUT method for file upload. Right-click the file and then select “Rename” on the context menu. Can I use prefix of the workflow model for the process variables that are not mapped in the content model? The Alfresco community is designed to help you learn about the possibilities of the Alfresco platform. Although you might already have URL Links Curl or another CURL-associated software installed on your computer, you can still encounter problems opening URL Links Curl files. 1 200 OK Content-Length: 6 Content-Type: application/json; charset=utf-8 Access-Control-Allow-Origin: * ETag: [ETAG_VALUE] Cache-Control: no-cache 10 // Current value of the data at the specified location Include the returned ETag in your next PUT or DELETE request to update data that specifically matches that ETag value. bash; aws; There are already a couple of ways to do this using a 3rd party library, but I didn't really feel like including and sourcing several hundred lines of code just to run a CURL command. To upload a file to Shopify: Desktop. The second parameter @Content specifies binary data of file. A common approach is to generate a list of files using another command, such as ls, grep, dir, etc, and then use curl to upload files from that list. 4 - Arbitrary File Upload (2). Automated SFTP upload with curl. Mount file shares concurrently in the cloud or on-premises on Windows, Linux and macOS. curl is used in command lines or scripts to transfer data. Default: the authenticated user. If you send a binary file through the pipeline, PowerShell will treat it as a text file and you won’t be able to use the data in the file. sftp> put localfile. curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user. Attaching Files using cURL. If you use OpenAPI 2 (fka Swagger), visit OpenAPI 2 pages. cURL is a command line tool for transferring data over a number of protocols. The list of options that can be passed is dizzying. If there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the local file name. All of Stripe’s officially supported Client libraries should have support for sending multipart/form-data. First, you need to download the PowerShell cmdlets for this preview. If for some reason while using a Mac, you may want to download a file using the terminal, you’ll really have to love the terminal to it, but let’s assume you want to it that way. More info available here: Central Wireless. PHP Download file from url using cURL. Microsoft buys Nokia's smartphone division for 7billion USD Nvidia planning its own tablet, Nvidia Tab - Rumour Electronic Arts to release free-to-play soccer game which is exclusive for PC- FIFA World. Below is the command I have for the Upload part curl -T E:\. html' create a dir curl --digest --user 'user:pass' -X MKCOL http. Summary If you have built a simple web page (see HTML basics for an example), you will probably want to put it online, on a web server. The workaround is to read the file separately w/o requesting write access:. License This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL). Same call still works fine! I made a little bash script to send the files with something like. It’s very basic and is only designed to connect and upload an ASCII file, but it should help you get started. If there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the local file name. With modern browser support, you can upload many files at one time if the multiple attribute is given. What I want to do is perform a normal POST, including a file and some other variables to a remote server. 4 - Arbitrary File Upload (2). It supports a wide range of internet protocols including HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, SCP, SFTP, TFTP, LDAP, DAP, DICT, TELNET, FILE, IMAP, POP3, SMTP, and RTSP. Could you, please, help me with suggestions.